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Watersupply Department is very important department within the Pune Municipal Corporation.



Water way in Pune Edit

Historical aspectsEdit

The Pataleshwars Cave may be possibly the earliest known human-made water harvesting system in Pune that still survives. Grooves along the floor of the ‘courtyard’ outside the cave/ temple area lead into a water tank possibly to channelize rainwater into the tank.


Water Supply During the Eras of Shivaji and the PeshwasEdit

The very first water supply scheme for Pune was implemented By Dadoji Kondev (Servant of Shahaji Bhosale).

In 1750, one of the knights of Nanasaheb Peshwa, Sardar Naro Appaji Tulshibagwale built Katraj Lake to arrange for water supply of Pune city. In year 1778 Sardar Anandrao Raste brought water to Rasta Peth area of Pune city, from Kondhave village which is located 7 miles eastern of Pune city.

In year 1790 Sardar Nana Phadnis directed well water from Narhe Ambegaon village located 6 miles southern of Pune city. He directed well-water by means of an Earthen Duct. This water was said to be of very good quality, and was being collected in a tank at Sadashiv Peth area of Pune city. Ruparam Choudhari also brought water by pipe to Shukrawar Peth and Bhavani Peth areas of Pune city.

Damming of Ambil Odha

The Ambil Odha was dammed at Katraj in 1755, creating two lakes. The upper one is for settling silt and the lower one for providing water. The course of the Ambil Odha was changed around the same time, and a temple built at Sarasbagh, which was a marshy area along side the odha course.

The reservoir created by the damming of Ambil is the Katraj Lake which is located 10 km south of Pune city. This historic water supply system comprises huge ducts and underground tunnels originating from Katraj Lake of the city to the historic Shaniwarwada Fort, the ancient seat of the Peshwas.

An earthen duct channelizes water to Pune city from the wall of Katraj Lake. This duct measures 2’ 6” in breadth and 6’ to 7’ in height. Between Katraj to Shaniwarwada there are about 125 openings. This eight km long duct opens out as a series of water tanks (Hauds) at Shaniwar wada and the nearby houses. Some of these, such as the Kala Haud and the Nana Haud, are still functional. At that time it is said that this water supply scheme was able to supply approx 29 lakh litres of water per day. This underground water supply system is considered an engineering marvel as it could supply water to practically the whole of Pune then without the need for motors and pipelines, which are used at present.

This Katraj water supply scheme played vital role as Pune was flooded when Panshet tumbled down in 1961. Today however, water from the Katraj reservois is not potable and cannot be used as drinking water.

The dams built by the BritishEdit

From about 1600 AD, the British East India Company had started trading with and controlling many parts of the Indian region. The British brought with them new ideas of how to plan cities. In 1860, they set up the Pune Municipality and military settlements or cantonments at Khadki and Pune. They also created water supply systems for these new settlements. These are:

Khadakwasla Dam: Built by the British in 1876 small canal running parallel to the Mutha brought the water to Pune. Some of the pipe lines laid about 150 years ago still exist. Two canals viz. Mutha Right Bank Canal and the Mutha Left Bank Canal were drawn. Water in the Mutha Right Bank Canal was directed towards Swargate Water Purification Plant, and after purification it was being supplied to Pune city. Upto the year 1968, the Swargate Water Purification plant played the main role in water supply in Pune.
Pashan Dam: Built on the Ram Nadi to supply water to the Governor’s Residence (now the University of Pune)
Mula-Mutha Bund: In year 1848 a Bund was constructed at Parnakuti area to retain water in the river and to supply water to Pune Cantonment. Downstream of the Bund, the shallow slow moving water became a habitat for molluscs, and vegetation. Birds migrating from Europe have found this a good spot for spending the winter.

Water for Modern PuneEdit

The forests in the Sahyadris help to trap rainwater during the monsoon. Thus, the city of Pune is dependent on the mountain range for its water.

Punekars use the waters of the Mutha from the Khadakwasla reservoir. Dams at Panshet, Warasgaon and Temghar supplement the storage capacity of Khadakwasla. The Katraj and Pashan dams are not directly used for water supply by the PMC, but probably have a significant role in recharge of ground water which is used by thousands of Punekars. All these dams are managed by the Irrigation Dept.

PMC buys water from the Irrigation Dept, and treats and supplies it to us. With a careful look at this wikimap, one can trace the pipeline and the Right Bank Canal that bring water from Khadakwasla to Pune.

Quantity of water bought by PMC from Irrigation Dept in 2007 = 874million litres
Cost of pumping, treatment and water supply = Rs. 1/KL
Number of domestic water connections = 19253
Number of commercial water connections = 14902
Actual cost of water supply = Rs. 3.17 per KL
Domestic water tax rate = Rs. 5 per KL
Commercial water tax rate = Rs. 21 per KL

Water treatmentEdit

Water treatment plants have been built by PMC at Parvati (see on wikimapia), Pune Cantonment, Holkar Bridge Warje (new and old), Wagholi and Wadgaon.

Untreated water from the dam may contain dirt and germs. It is treated by PMC to make it safe for consumption and use. The treatment involves straining, alum addition (flocculation), settling, filtration and chlorination.

Water supplyEdit

Water is supplied to different parts of the city through a network of pumping stations and pipelines. Since these water pumps run on electricity, the electricity bill is a large part of the cost of distributing water.

Several large water storage tanks have been built in different parts of Pune. If impurities enter these tanks, thousands of people can fall ill. Citizens are expected to keep the area around these tanks clean.

Sewage or impurities can also enter water pipes if they are broken. Illegal connections from the pipes or other damage can cause this. If one sees a leaking or broken water or sewage pipe, citizens are expected to immediately inform the PMC Water Dept or nearest ward office.


Sewage treatmentEdit

Sewage Treatment in Pune

Waste water or sewage from houses flows through small open drains or underground sewage pipes. These join big drains or sewage pipes that carry the sewage to a Sewage Treatment Plant.

Several house holds are not connected to the sewage network. Instead they have septic tanks, or they may just have open drains discharging their waste water into a near by water body.

The river’s flow naturally treats sewage. However, since the quantity of sewage is very large, the river cannot cope. People living downstream get polluted water. The riverine ecosystem in Pune has changed considerably with increased sewage loads over the years. Biodiversity studies under the Pune Alive initiative have revealed the loss of fish species due to this pollution.

Ground water useEdit

Some rainwater seeps through soil till it reaches a layer of solid rock, where it collects. This is groundwater.

Many houses have bore wells to draw ground water up for use.

PMC is encouraging rain water harvesting and recharge of groundwater. Groundwater can be polluted by leaks from sewage and effluent pipes or containers, petrol pumps, etc. It is important to regularly check the quality of ground water. To be on the safer side, its better to use it for non-drinking purposes.

PMC has commissioned a study of the groundwater and aquifers in Pune.


WATER SUPPLY

Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. Municipal water supply is so far limited to public water supply. Typically water supply networks deliver a single quality of water, whether it is to be used for drinking, washing or landscape irrigation; Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations, including groundwater (aquifers), surface water (lakes and rivers), and the sea through the desalinated. The water is then, in most cases, purified, disinfected through chlorination. Treated water then either flows by gravity or is pumped to reservoirs, which can be elevated such as water towers or on the ground reservoirs distribution. Water supply service quality has many dimensions: continuity; water quality; pressure; and the degree of responsiveness of service providers to customer complaints.


NEED FOR WATER PURIFICATION

In 2004 about 3.5 billion people worldwide (54% of the global population) had access to piped water supply through house connections. Another 1.3 billion (20%) had access to safe water through other means than house connections, including standpipes, protected springs and protected wells. Finally, more than 1 billion people (16%) did not have access to safe water, meaning that they have to revert to unprotected wells or springs, canals, lakes or rivers to fetch water. Both an adequate amount of water and adequate water quality are essential for public health and hygiene. Waterborne diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. For example, an estimated 900 million people suffer (and approximately 2 million die) from water-related diarrhoeal illnesses each year. At least 17 percent of the total burden of human diseases in many developing countries can be attributed to diarrhea and infestations by intestinal worms. The most common waterborne diseases are diarrhea, typhoid and cholera.


DRINKING WATER


Drinking wateris water that is intended to be ingested by humans. Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. Although many fresh water sources are utilized by humans, some contain disease vectors or pathogens and cause long-term health problems if they do not meet certain water quality guidelines. As of the year 2006 (and pre-existing for at least three decades), there is a substantial shortfall in availability of potable water, primarily arising from overpopulation in lesser developed countries. As of the year 2000, 37 percent of the populations of lesser developed countries did not have access to safe drinking water. Implications for disease propagation are significant. Many nations have water quality regulations for water sold as drinking water. The World Health Organization sets international standards for drinking water.

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Drinking water quality has a micro-biological and a physico-chemical dimension. There are thousands of parameters of water quality. In public water supply systems water should, at a minimum, be disinfected - usually through chlorination - or it may need to undergo treatment, especially in the case of surface water.

See also water purification.

Water Treatment

Water treatment plants have been built by PMC at Parvati (see on wikimapia), Pune Cantonment, Holkar Bridge Warje (new and old), Wagholi and Wadgaon.

Untreated water from the dam may contain dirt and germs. It is treated by PMC to make it safe for consumption and use. The treatment involves straining, alum addition (flocculation), settling, filtration and chlorination.

Water purification plant serves three basic fuctions viz

1)To control the physical parameters of the water i.e. to raise the asthetic value of water. If you take water in transparent glass, then it should be so clear that at first sight you must wish to drink it. I.e. it should be crystal clear. 2) The second function is adjustment of the chemical parameters. PH is the most important chemical parameter which needs adjustment.

3)Third & most important function of any water purification plant is DISINFECTION. This is very important that water which treated for drinking purpose must be disinfected.

Now let us start with P.M.C.

In all we have six Water purification plants under PMC.Viz

1) Parvati W.W.

2) Pune Cannt. W. W.

3) Holkar W.W.

4) Warje village W.W.

5) New Warje W.W.

6) ChiKhali W.W.

Construction of two new Water purification plants is in progress at Wadgaon & Cantt. W.W. Out of all these plants under PMC Parvati W.W. is of highest water purification capacity.

Parvati W.W.

This Plant it is commissioned in two steps or stages. First stage it commissioned in year 1969 (By Candifilters) & second it is commissioned in year 1972(By Hindustan Cons. Compony). Both stages are functionally identical the only difference is in their water purification capacity. The first stage is having water purification capacity of 48 MGD i.e. 217.92 MLD. Second Stage it is having water purification capacity of 70 MGD i.e. 317.8 MLD. The total capacity of Parvati W.W. is 118 MGD i.e. 535.72 MLD. These plant run completely under gravity.

Sources- Khadakvasla Dam is our Direct Source of raw water. Khadkvasla Dam in turn may receive water from Panshet dam, Warasgaon Dam, or from Temghar Dam. So we may say that these three Dams act as an indirect Sources of Raw Water.

Khadkwasla Dam: Khadakwasla is a moderate sized dam on the Mutha river, located about 20 kilometers southwest of the city of Pune, and named after the nearby village of Khadakwasla. This dam is one of the main sources of water for the city of Pune. Just a few kilometers up the road from the dam lies the Sinhagad Fort and the twin dams of Panshet and Varasgaon which mainly supply water for irrigation. In 1961, the Khadakwasla Dam had to be blown, as the Panshet Dam overflowed, causing devastating floods in the city of Pune.

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The dam was later rebuilt... There are three outlets for Khadkvasla Dam first one is Mutha right canal, second is baby canal now instead of baby canal we have a close MS pipe line measuring 10 ft, or 3.03 m in diameter.The third outlet opens into the river.

KHADAKWASLAEdit

  • LOCATION: Haveli Taluka
  • LENGTH: 1939m
  • HEIGHT: 31.79m
  • STRUCTURE: Composite
  • STORAGE CAPACITY: 374 MM3 (Million cubic meters)
  • YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1869
  • PANSHET –Tananji Sagar Reservoir
  • LOCATION: Velhe Taluka
  • LENGTH: 765m
  • HEIGHT: 58.83m
  • STRUCTURE: Composite
  • STORAGE CAPACITY: 303 MM3
  • YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1960
  • Broke & flooded Pune in 1961

WARASGAONEdit

Veer Baji Pasalkar Reservoir

  • LOCATION: Velhe Taluka
  • LENGTH: 780m
  • HEIGHT: 63.4m
  • STRUCTURE: Masonry
  • STORAGE CAPACITY: 374 MM3
  • YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1993
  • TEMGHAR
  • LOCATION: Haveli Taluka Dam is under construction
  • Process:-

Steps or Unit processes involved in water purification at P.W.W.

  1. Reception of the raw water
  2. Pre chlorination
  3. Flash mixing or coagulation
  4. Flocculation
  5. Clarification or Settling
  6. Filtration
  7. Disinfection

1)Reception of the raw water @ L-Chamber - L shaped chamber is the first recipient point for raw water at P.W.W. We have installed a close pipe line which comes directly from Khadkvasla Dam, & measures 10 ft. in diameter. This pipe line terminates in a chamber at PMC raw water pumping station which located adjacent to P.W.W. This pumping station is meant to pump raw water for purification, at Cantt. W.W. & Holkar W.W.From the same chamber where the close pipe line terminates we have taken five pipe lines which will be feeding pipe lines for P.W.W. Out of these five pipe lines four pipe lines measures 12000 mm in diameter & one measures 1535 mm in diameter. The four 1200 mm pipe lines are connected to the L- Shaped chamber & gate valves are fixed on these pipes at L chamber. The fifth line is connected to the one of the out let of L chamber & a butterfly valve is fixed to this pipe to control the flow of the water from pipe. The main function of L- chamber is to control the inflow of the raw water i.e. when we have enough stock of purified water we can curtail raw water supply from L chamber. And when we are shortfall of a supply we can raise it from L- chamber.


Before installation of close pipe line raw water used to travel through open baby canal before reaching to the P.W.W. Close pipe line is laid at the place of baby canal.

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Other open canal which runs adjacent to baby canal is Mutha right canal. Previously, even before baby canal raw water was taken from this open canal. This canal is mainly for irrigation purpose. Even today in case of shortfall of raw water from close pipe, raw water is taken from this open irrigation canal. We have two intakes at canal which can be controlled by gate valves. Out lets of L-Chamber are connected to the Flash mixing zone.

Flow of incoming raw water = app. 219 cusec = 6.2 m3/sec

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