5.Filtration - After separating most floc, the water is filtered as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and unsettled floc. The most common type of filter is a rapid sand filter. Water moves vertically through sand which often has layers of sand. If charcoal is used as topmost layer of a filter media then, it removes organic compounds including taste and odor. The space between sand particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration is not enough. Most particles pass through surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter. This property of the filter is key to its operation: if the top layer of sand were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog. To clean the filter, water is passed quickly upward through the filter, opposite the normal direction (called back flushing or backwashing) to remove embedded particles. Prior to this, compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break up the compacted filter media to aid the backwashing process; this is known as air blowing. This contaminated water can be disposed of, along with the sludge from the sedimentation (clarifiers) basin, or it can be recycled by mixing with the raw water entering the plant. Some water treatment plants may employ pressure filters. These work on the same principle as rapid gravity filters differing in that the filter medium is enclosed in a steel vessel and the water is forced through it under pressure.

Tertiary treatment- Disinfection is normally the last step in purifying drinking water. Water is disinfected to destroy any pathogens which pass through the filters. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and Shigella, and protozoans, including G. lamblia and other Cryptosporidia. Mostly public water supplies are required to maintain a residual disinfecting agent throughout the distribution system, in which water may remain for days or hours before reaching the consumer. Following the introduction of any chemical disinfecting agent, the water is usually held in temporary storage - often called a contact tank or clear well to allow the disinfecting action to complete.


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